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“喧宾”夺分 —— 英语中考宾语从句考点与解题策略

作者:童玲 来源:本站原创 发布时间:2018年05月29日 点击数: 【字体: 收藏

宾语从句是初中阶段英语语法学习的重点和难点,也是中考命题的重点和必考内容。为了便于同学们系统地、全面地了解和掌握这种句型,现在结合中考实例,对其进行有针对性的剖析,希望能够对同学们的学习有所帮助。

  一、 注意正确使用连接词

1. 当宾语从句由陈述句变化而来时,用that来连接从句,其中的that无具体意义,非正式场合可以省略。如:

  I hear (that) she’s going to give me a call.

  Li Tao thought (that) the TV play was interesting.

  2. 当宾语从句由一般疑问句变化而来时,可用if 或whether 来连接从句,意为“是否”。如:

David asked her if/whether she slept well last night.

注意:一般情况下,whether 和if 可以互用,但有些情况例外

a. 介词短语后只用whether 不用if

  eg: We are talking about whether we'll go on the panic.

  b. 连接词与动词不定式或or not 连用时,只用whether

  eg: I can’t say whether or not he will come on time

c. if意为如果讲时,连接的是条件状语从句,表示如果,不能用whether

  eg: If you want to be a good teacher, it will take times.

d. whether置于句首时,不能换用if

       eg: Whether he will win the game, I can’t guess.

  3. 当宾语从句由特殊疑问句变化而来时,用连接代词who/whose/what/which 或连接副词when/where /why/how 来连接,而且不可省略。如:

  Do you know where we can stay on the island?

  I don’t know why Jane was late for school this morning.

  二、 注意正确使用语序

  在含有宾语从句的复合句中,宾语从句都要使用陈述语序,即:连接词+主语+谓语+其它,还要注意原来的助动词或情态动词要符合相关的时态。如:

  When did the train leave? I want to know. →I want to know when the train left.

  Does the shop close at six every day? Do you know? →Do you know if/whether the shop closes at six every day?

  三、注意正确使用时态

  1. 如果主句是一般现在时、一般将来时或祈使句时,宾语从句时态不受限制,可以根据实际表达的需要来确定。如:

I hear he is here today

I hear he was here yesterday.

I hear he will be here tomorrow.

2. 如果主句是一般过去时,宾语从句应与主句保持一致,根据中考大纲,初中阶段对时态

考查不包括过去完成时,所以从句只用一般过去时、过去将来时或者过去进行时。如:

She didn’t know why the boy was late again.  (一般过去时)

I wondered when she would go back to America.   (过去将来)

Tom told me that he was waiting for his grandpa at the station at 8 p.m. yesterday evening.(过去进行时)

3. 如果宾语从句所叙述的是客观事实、自然现象、科学真理、格言等时,从句不受主句限制,用一般现在时。如:

Everyone answered that there are sixty minutes in an hour.

Our geography teacher told us that the earth moves round the sun.

My father told me seeing is believing. 

注意:连接词在从句中作主语时,语序不用改变,因为本来就是“主语+谓语”的结构,常见的连接词为who, what, which。

        eg: Who broke the window?  →He asks us who broke the window.

eg: Could you tell me what's the matter/wrong with you?

eg: Can you tell me which is the way to the nearest hospital?

四、 注意否定前移

  当主句的谓语动词为think, believe, suppose等动词时,且主语为第一人称,宾语从句的否定前移。如:

  I don’t believe he is a doctor, is he?

  五、 注意复合结构

  在find, make, think 等一些可带有复合宾语的动词后,为保持句子平衡,常将实际宾语(主要是that连接的从句)后置,而使用形式宾语it.如:

  I think it important that we should learn English well.

六、典型中考题分析

1. ---Could you please tell me ________?  

---The people and the food.

A. How does Tom like China           B. if Tom likes China

C. what does Tom like about China      D. what Tom likes about China

【解析】该题主要考察的是宾语从句的连接词和语序。首先采用排除法,根据宾语从句的语序应为陈述句语序排除A和C选项。其次根据答句和选项可以判断Tom喜欢的是关于中国的人民和食物,所以宾语从句不是个一般疑问句,首先排除if连接的B选项。答案应为D。

2.They wonder ________ robots will make humans lose their jobs or not.

         A. that B. if C. whether D. what

        【解析】该题主要考查的是宾语从句的连接词。在具有选择意义,又or not连用时,宾语从句的连接词往往用whether而不是if。答案应为C。

3. --- Could you tell me _____ he came here?

--- He drove here himself.

         A. how B. why C. when D. whether

        【解析】该题主要考查的是宾语从句的连接词。根据对话答句中的“他自己开车去的”,可推断问句询问的是交通方式,因此连接词应为“how”。答案应为A。

4. ---What did the manager ask you after the meeting?

      --- She asked me __________.

A. what I do for the project last week   B. if can I finish the work on time

B. how did I deal with the problem   D. why I was late for the meeting

【解析】该题主要考查的是宾语从句的时态和语序。根据答句可知宾语从句要用一般过去时态。可排除A和B选项。再根据宾语从句应用陈述句语序排除C选项。答案应为D。

5. ---Shall we invite our teacher to the party?

  --- That’s a good idea. But I ________ think she _________ come.

A. don’t; will B. / ; don’t C. won’t; will D. do; won’t

【解析】该题主要考查的是宾语从句的否定前移。根据句意,But之后应该是一个含有否定意义的主从复合句。根据规则,think后面的宾语从句中的否定词应放在think前面。答案应为A。

6. --- Tell me _____.

          --- Well, it’s like something is biting my feet.

         A. what is wrong with it B. what is it

         C. what the matter is with it D. what is it like

        【解析】该题主要考查的是宾语从句的语序。无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序。由于题中连接词“what”在宾语从句中作主语,从句的结构应为“连接词+谓语”的结构,可首先排除C选项。然后根据对话内容可判断问句询问的内容可以确定正确选项答案A。

  综上所述,同学们在学习宾语从句和答题牢牢记住以下这三点:①连接词,陈述句一般由that连接,这时的that可以省略一般疑问句则由if或whether连接而特殊疑问句则由特殊疑问词连接。②时态,主句是现在时态,从句可用所需要的任何时态但如果主句是过去时态,从句时态要用过去的某种时态。值得注意的特殊情况是, 当从句是表述客观真理的时候, 不随着主句时态的变化而变化。这一点在动词填空中是常考点。③语序,宾语从句永远要用陈述句顺序。这三点往往是综合在一起考查的,只要同学们三方面都注意到了,题目也就迎刃而解了。以上是我为同学们介绍的宾语从句结构及这种语法知识在中考考查中的呈现及解题策略, 希望我的喧“宾”能为你中考夺“分”助力。

 

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